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干旱区地理 ›› 2020, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (1): 27-37.doi: 10.12118/j.issn.1000-6060.2020.01.04

• 地表过程研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

兰州盆地新石器时期遗址分布与地形的关系研究

姜梦迪1,张鹏丽2,梁博毅1,李育2   

  1. 1北京大学城市与环境学院/地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京100871; 2兰州大学资源环境学院/西部环境教育部重点实验室/兰州大学干旱区水循环与水资源研究中心,甘肃兰州730000
  • 修回日期:2019-04-19 接受日期:2019-08-11 出版日期:2020-01-05 发布日期:2020-01-05
  • 通讯作者: 李育, 男, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师 E-mail:liyu@lzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:姜梦迪(1995-), 女, 硕士研究生, 研究方向为自然地理学. E-mail:jiangmd13@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41822708, 41571178);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20100102);兰州大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项(lzujbky2018k15);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目资助(XDA20060700)

Relationship between the distribution of Neolithic cultural sites and topography in the Lanzhou Basin

JIANG Meng-di1,ZHANG Peng-li2,LIANG Bo-yi1,LI Yu2   

  1. 1 College of urban and environmental sciences,Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China; 2 College of Earth and Environmental Sciences,Key Laboratory of Western Chinas Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education),Center for Hydrologic Cycle and Water Resources in Arid Region;Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000,Gansu, China
  • Revised:2019-04-19 Accepted:2019-08-11 Online:2020-01-05 Published:2020-01-05

摘要: 研究遗址和地形等环境要素的关系有助于理解人地关系的作用机制。基于GIS空间分析和二元逻辑斯蒂模型分析了兰州盆地新石器时期马家窑和齐家文化遗址空间分布的特征、变化规律及影响因素,定量研究了地形等环境要素与遗址分布的关系。结果表明:新石器时期的马家窑文化、半山文化、马厂文化和齐家文化遗址均沿黄河分布,主要集中于河流阶地上坡度较小的区域。距河流的水平最近距离为318.6~17 721.7 m。新石器遗址特别是马厂遗址的空间集聚性明显。从马家窑类型、半山类型,发展到马厂类型,单一型遗址的占比逐渐由53.3%增多至92.6%。马厂类型的分布中心距离黄河最近。地形等环境要素显著影响遗址的空间分布,遗址出现概率主要受坡度、坡向和距黄河最近距离的影响,模型的解释程度可达65.0%。引入历史时期和现代聚落进行比较,历史时期聚落分布受到高程和坡度的影响,而现代聚落的分布主要受到高程、坡度和距河流距离的影响。聚落分布和影响因素的演变可能受到社会生产力发展的影响。

关键词: 兰州盆地, 新石器时期遗址, 地形, 时空分布, 逻辑斯蒂模型

Abstract:

Research on the relationship between human settlements and environmental factors such as topographic features has important significance for understanding the mechanisms of man-land interactivity. The Lanzhou Basin, Gansu Province, China is a typical valley region and is surrounded by a series of imposing mountains and hills whose relative relief is indeed immense. Using the methods of GIS spatial analysis and binary logistic regression model, the spatial and temporal distribution of Neolithic Majiayao and Qijia cultural sites and the influencing factors were analyzed respectively in this study; then, the relationships between the distribution of human settlements and topographic factors at a longer time scale from Neolithic culture to modern settlements were investigated. The results show that the distribution scope of Neolithic sites was large. The Neolithic cultural sites including Majiayao, Banshan, Machang and Qijia are situated along the Yellow River, mainly sitting on the river terraces with smaller slopes above the river floodplain. This may be related to limited ability of humans to withstand floods at that time, and river terraces provided favorable conditions for primitive settlements formation. The range of the closest distances to the Yellow River was from 318.6 m to 17 721.7 m. The Neolithic sites had significant spatial agglomeration, especially the Machang cultural site. From Majiayao, Banshan to Machang, the proportion of the sites of single type was increased gradually from 53.3% to 92.6%, which reflected relatively unstable life style and noncontinuous cultural development. The distribution centers of the sites of Machang type are the closest ones to the Yellow River. The overlay of sites and the changes of distribution centers indicated that the migration and evolution of the sites were mainly triggered by climate change dated back to 4 200 years ago. Topography and environmental factors remarkably influenced the distribution of cultural sites, and the slope, aspect and the distance to the Yellow River determined the probability if there was a site. The model can explain approximately 65.0% of the existence of the Neolithic sites. By contrast, the occurrence of historical sites was influenced by elevation and slope, whereas that of modern settlements was influenced by elevation, slope and the distance to the Yellow River. The change of settlements distribution and influencing factors could be explained by development of social productivity.

Key words: Lanzhou Basin, Neolithic cultural sites, topography, spatiotemporal distribution, the logistic regression model