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干旱区地理 ›› 2020, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (1): 38-47.doi: 10.12118/j.issn.1000-6060.2020.01.05

• 地表过程研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔克拉玛干沙漠输沙势时空分布特征

孙小雲1,房彦杰1,赵景峰1,何清2,周杰3   

  1. 1四川师范大学地理与资源科学学院,四川成都6101012中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所,新疆乌鲁木齐8300023中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,新疆乌鲁木齐830002
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-24 修回日期:2019-08-27 出版日期:2020-01-05 发布日期:2020-01-05
  • 通讯作者: 赵景峰(1965-),男,教授,博士,主要从事荒漠环境研究. E-mail:zhaojf@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:孙小雲(1994-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事地表荒漠化过程研究. E-mail: sunnysunxy@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国沙漠气象科学研究开放基金项目(Sqj2007003);中国科学院“西部青年学者”项目(2017-XBQNXZ-B-017

Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of sand drift potential in Taklimakan Desert

SUN Xiao-yun1,FANG Yan-jie1,ZHAO Jing-feng1,HE Qing2,ZHOU Jie3   

  1. 1 Department of Geography and Resources Science,Sichuan Normal University,Chengdu 610101,Sichuan,China; 2 Urumqi Institute of Desert Meteorology,Meteorological Bureau of China,Urumqi 830002,Xinjiang,China; 3 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Urumqi 830002,Xinjiang,China
  • Received:2019-05-24 Revised:2019-08-27 Online:2020-01-05 Published:2020-01-05

摘要: 利用塔克拉玛干沙漠22个气象站(周边21个站和沙漠腹地1个塔中站)20052007年的逐时风记录数据,首先基于输沙势定义计算了2007年各测站的16个方位的输沙势;其次以内积相似度指数聚类分析为基础,再结合其空间分布特点,把该沙漠的动力输沙环境划分为5种类型:沙漠东部库尔勒型(西西南型)、北部新和型(偏南型)、西部策勒型(偏东型)、南部民丰型(东东北型)和一种特殊类型;其中策勒型输沙势最大、新和型最小;民丰型输沙势方向稳定性最好、库尔勒型最差;此外,输沙势的季节差异上(2007年为例),各测站春夏季(3~8月)的输沙势都很强,占年均输沙势的81.29%~98.79%,尤其是5月份占年输沙势的22.7%~56.8%,冬季(11~次年2月)几乎无起沙风;沙漠合成输沙势年际变化表现为:输沙势变幅为±33%,输沙方向变幅为±9.6°,其中输沙势值变幅最大是阿拉尔站(±80%),方向变幅最大的是库车站(±24.4°)。

关键词: 塔克拉玛干沙漠, 输沙势空间分布, 季节变化, 年际变化

Abstract: Taklimakan Desert is the largest sand desert in China, which is located in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang. The rates of sand transport by wind plays the most important role in its aeolian surface processes. The Fryberger Method provides a useful and accessible way of evaluating the relative rates of sand transport (drift potential, DP) from measurements of wind data. With this method, a number of different estimations of DP about Taklimakan Desert have been proposed for the past decades. In this paper, we recalculated the DPs using the definition equation in which the arguments are the every measurements of wind velocity rather than the calculation model in which the arguments replaced by the midpoint of each velocity category, in order to clarify the cognition of the wind-energy environments in the sand sea. The calculations in the paper shows that the DP values of 22 meteorological stations ranged from 0.7 VU to 33.4 VU in 2007thus the wind regimes should be classified into the Low-energy wind environments by using of the Fryberger classification.Based on the analysis of resultant drift potential (RDP),involving the RDP similarity (Cluster Analysis of Inner Product Similarity) and the region adjacency of a RDP type, the RDPs have been classified into five typesnamely, Korla type in eastern Taklimakan with the RDPs showing W-S directions (abbr. W-S type), Xinhe type in the northern region as S type, Cele type in the western region as E type, Minfeng type in the southern region as E-NE type, and Special type with the RDPs at three stations being obviously different from their adjacent regions. The maximum average DP was caused by the NW wind regime, which happened in Cele type, and the lowest ratio of the directional variability of the winds (RDP/DP) was induced by the NE wind regime, which happened in Korla type. As a contrast,in the convergence zone between the NW and the NE wind regimes, the DPs was relative lower (Xinhe type with the minimum of DP),and the ratio of RDP/DP was higher (Minfeng type with the multi-direction effective winds) than the above two types. The cumulative DP from spring to summer in 2007 had reached to 81.29%-98.79% of the annual DP, only in May it accounted for 22.7% to 56.8% of the annual DP; whereas in winter except for February, almost no effective sand-driving winds had occurred over Taklimakan. In the southeast edge of the desert, under the normal weather condition, the northwest wind system moved eastwards between Qiemo and Ruoqiang County in May however it retreated back to the west of Tazhong region and between Minfeng and Qiemo in February. This indicated that the positions of the wind convergence zone under the strong wind weather were shifted eastwards. During the period from 2005 to 2007,the inter-annual variation of RDP showed as ±33% in magnitude and ±9.6° in direction as a whole; but some specific stations displayed larger variations of the RDPs, such as a variation of ±80% in magnitude at Aral station and a variation of ±24.4° in direction at Kuqa station.

Key words: Taklimakan Desert, spatial distribution characteristics of sand drift potential, seasonal change, inter-annual variation