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干旱区地理 ›› 2018, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 701-711.doi: 10.12118/j.issn.1000-6060.2018.04.04

• 气候与水文 • 上一篇    下一篇

近60 a内蒙古不同草原类型区极端气温和干旱事件特征分析

薛海丽, 张钦, 唐海萍   

  1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-08 修回日期:2018-05-15 出版日期:2018-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 唐海萍.E-mail:tanghp@bnu.edu.cn E-mail:tanghp@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:薛海丽(1987-),女,山西人,博士,研究方向为全球变化与陆地生态系统.E-mail:201431190026@mail.bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500608-3)

Extreme temperature and drought events in four different grassland areas of Inner Mongoliain in recent 60 years

XUE Hai-li, ZHANG Qin, TANG Hai-ping   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2018-01-08 Revised:2018-05-15 Online:2018-07-25

摘要: 基于相对湿润度指数和非参数百分法,结合线性趋势法、Mann-Kendall非参数检验法和累积距平检验法,分析了1955—2015年内蒙古4个草原类型区(多伦、锡林浩特、海拉尔和四子王旗)温度和降水,以及极端气候事件变化特征。结果表明:(1)4个区域年平均气温均显著升高,升高速率约为0.40~0.47℃·(10 a)-1,气温变化存在非对称性升温特征,多伦、锡林浩特、海拉尔和四子王旗最低气温上升速率分别为最高气温上升速率的1.61倍、1.86倍、2.73倍和1.65倍,春冬季气温增加速率高于夏秋季。(2)多伦、海拉尔、四子王旗和锡林浩特年降水量分别为381.6 mm、350.5 mm、318.6 mm和283.6 mm;降水天数显著增加,而降水量无显著变化,但多伦和锡林浩特降水量呈现略微降低的趋势,其它两个区域呈现略微增加的趋势。(3)4个区域极端高温事件频率显著增加,突变点均出现在1990 s,极端低温事件频率显著减少,突变点均出现在1970s末。(4)4个区域均呈现暖干化的趋势,锡林浩特干旱事件发生最为突出,四子王旗以中度干旱为主,海拉尔和多伦以无旱为主,2000年后,4个区域干旱事件发生频率均明显增加。降水量变化不显著,而气温和潜在蒸散量显著升高可能是导致4个区域不断干旱化的主要原因。

关键词: 气温非对称性, 极端高温, 极端低温, 极端强降水, 干旱事件

Abstract: The grassland in Inner Mongolia is an important ecological security guarantee in northern China,the ecological environment in the area is extremely sensitive to climate change.Studying the characteristics of extreme climate events of the area can promote the understanding of the response of grassland to climate change.Based on the relative humidity index and nonparametric percentile method,combined with linear trend method,Mann-Kendall mutation and cumulative anomaly test,we analyzed the characteristics of the change in temperature,precipitation,and the extreme climate events in four different grassland areas in Inner Mongolia(Dolun,Xilinhot,Hailar and Siziwang Banner)from 1955 to 2015. The results indicated as follows:(1) The annual average temperatures of the four regions were significantly increased at a rate of 0.40-0.47℃·(10 a)-1,and presented asymmetric trend,the rising rate of minimum temperature in Duolun,Xilinhot,Hailar and Siziwang Banner were 1.61,1.86,2.73 and 1.65 times higher than those in correspondenceof the maximum temperature,respectively,and the rising rates in spring and winter were higher than those in summer and autumn. (2) The annual total precipitation in Duolun,Hailar,Siziwang Banner and Xilinhot were 381.6 mm,350.5 mm,318.6 mm and 283.6 mm,respectively. Although the number of precipitation days was increased significantly,the precipitation in Dolun and Xilinhot was slightly decreased,while it was slightly increased in the other two regions. (3) The frequency of extreme high temperature events was increased significantly,while the extreme cold events was decreased significantly. (4) In the past 60 years,the climate in the four regions has been warming and drying,among which the extreme drought events in Xilinho thad the highest frequency while Siziwang Banner was dominated by moderate drought.After 2000,the frequency of drought events in the four regions was increased significantly,this may be due to the significant increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration,while the precipitation did not change significantly.

Key words: asymmetric trends, extreme high temperature, extreme low temperature, extreme strong precipitation, drought events

中图分类号: 

  • P467