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干旱区地理 ›› 2016, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (4): 817-827.

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于地理分区的蒙古国景观格局分析

李一凡1,2, 王卷乐1,3, 祝俊祥1   

  1. 1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2 中国科学院海洋研究所, 山东 青岛 266071;
    3 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-01 修回日期:2016-05-29 出版日期:2016-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 王卷乐(1976-),男,博士,研究员,研究方向为地理信息共享与遥感应用.Email:wangjl@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:wangjl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:李一凡(1992-),女,硕士,研究方向为景观生态与遥感应用.Email:lyf@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-08);中科院信息化专项项目(XXH12504-1-01)

Landscape pattern analysis of Mongolia based on the geographical partitions

LI Yi-fan1,2, WANG Juan-le1,3, ZHU Jun-xiang1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, IGSNRR, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2 Institute of Oceanology, CAS, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China;
    3 Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2016-03-01 Revised:2016-05-29 Online:2016-07-25

摘要: 蒙古国是中国的重要邻国,是当前我国实施“一带一路”、“中蒙俄经济走廊”的重要地区。认识本区域的地理分区特点和景观格局对于我国在此区域实施“走出去”战略具有重要意义。以干旱区和半干旱区分界为基础将蒙古国分为五大地理分区,基于2010年30 m分辨率土地覆被数据和实地调查,得到包含草地景观二级分类的蒙古国景观的空间分布,并依此获取并对比了蒙古国整体及各分区在景观水平和斑块类型水平上的多种景观指数。分析指出蒙古国整体上呈现由北向南从森林景观,到典型草地景观和荒漠草地景观,再到裸地景观的分布格局,具有明显的纬向递变规律,各分区呈现出与其雨热、地形特点适应的格局分布;在自然与人文要素的双重影响下,各分区在地理分异规律、资源禀赋和生态环境特点上有显著差异。基于这一认识分区,还在生态环境保护、自然资源管理和城市发展建设等方面提出了相应的资源环境调控政策建议。

关键词: 景观格局, 地理分区, 土地覆被, 蒙古国, 政策建议

Abstract: As a friendly neighbor,Mongolia is also an important partner of China's "One Belt and One Road" and "China-Mongolia-Russia Economic corridor". The two countries share many common interests in resource development,environmental protection and regional sustainable development. Further understanding Mongolia's landscape pattern and man-land relationship is significant to bilateral ties and regional development. By using the boundaries lying between arid and semiarid zones,this paper has divided Mongolia into five partitions-Southern Gobi(SG),Altai Mountain(AM),Northern Forest(NF),Central Area(CA) and Eastern Mongolian Plateau(EP). On the basis of Mongolia's land cover data in 2010,this paper got and compared some landscape indices in terms of landscape composition,patch density,shape,aggregation and diversity,etc. Furthermore,in 2013 and 2014,we have been to Mongolia to do some landscape validation. The analysis results show the overall landscape in Mongolia gradually changes from forest to steppe to barren from north to south. Influenced by its discriminate climatic and topographic conditions,the landscape of these 5 partitions differs. Referring to the above analysis,we have proposed some suggestions to these 5 partitions:(1) as an emerging economic hinterland,SG should try to balance the environment protection and the infrastructure construction;(2) under the premise of protecting wildlife habitats,AM is suggested to make more efforts in developing eco-tourism industry;(3) more natural reserves can be built in NF to protect the species and genetic diversity of the partition;(4) CA is recommended to new more secondary cities to alleviate transportation,housing and environmental pressure to the capital; (5) EP is supposed to find a more scientific and reasonable grazing system to keep the grassland resources more sustainable. This paper is expected to offer some support for the long time corporation between Mongolia and China.

Key words: landscape pattern, geographical partition, land cover, Mongolia, policy recommendations

中图分类号: 

  • P901