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干旱区地理 ›› 2020, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (1): 56-63.doi: 10.12118/j.issn.1000-6060.2020.01.07

• 地表过程研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同覆盖度沙粒胶结体风蚀抑制效益研究

任宏晶1,2李生宇1雷加强1,樊瑞静1,2蔡东旭1,周1   

  1. 1中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,新疆乌鲁木齐8300112中国科学院大学,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-21 修回日期:2019-08-18 出版日期:2020-01-05 发布日期:2020-01-05
  • 通讯作者: 李生宇 E-mail:lishy_hb@163.com
  • 作者简介:任宏晶(1992-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事风沙地貌与荒漠化防治研究. E-mail: renhongjing16@mails.ucas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(41571011

Field experiment about inhibitory effects on wind erosion of sand cemented bodies with different coverage

REN Hong-jing1,2,LI Sheng-yu1,LEI Jia-qiang1,FAN Rui-jing1,2,CAI Dong-xu1,ZHOU Jie1   

  1. 1 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Urumqi 830011,Xinjiang,China; 2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2019-05-21 Revised:2019-08-18 Online:2020-01-05 Published:2020-01-05

摘要: 以塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地的沙粒胶结体(Sand Cemented Bodies,SCB)为研究对象,通过野外自然状态下吹蚀不同沙粒胶结体覆盖度的沙盘,计算沙面风蚀(积)量,并对覆盖度与风蚀率、抗风蚀效率的关系进行分析。结果表明:风蚀量随沙粒胶结体覆盖度的增加而减小,随吹蚀时间的增加而增加;当覆盖度大于30%时,沙面发生风沙堆积,且堆积量随覆盖度和吹蚀时间的增加而增加;沙粒胶结体的抗风蚀效率随覆盖度的增加而线性增大。沙面蚀积转化临界覆盖度为30%左右,且该覆盖度下床面抗风蚀效益最佳。通过对比沙粒胶结体抗风蚀效益的风洞模拟和野外实验,表明风况、风速、沙粒胶结体粒径组合不同可导致沙面蚀积差异和临界覆盖度不同。因此,塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地发育的沙粒胶结体具有很好的风蚀抑制功能,可作为流沙固定新措施继续研究开发。

关键词: 沙粒胶结体, 野外验证, 风蚀量, 抗风蚀效率, 固沙效益

Abstract: Taking the sand cemented bodies (SCB) in the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert, Xinjiang, China, as the research object, the amounts of wind erosion, accumulation and anti-erosion efficiency on the surface of sand beds with different SCB coverage were calculated after the field experiment, and the relation between coverage and wind erosion or antierosion efficiency was analyzed. The results of the field experiment and wind tunnel simulation were compared and analyzed at the same time. The results showed that the amount of erosion was decreased with the increasing degree of SCB coverage and was increased with the increasing deflation time. When the coverage was 0%-10%, the surface of sand beds were wind eroded with different deflation time. The sand blown by the wind accumulated on the sand surface when the coverage is greater than 30%, and the accumulation was increased with the increase of coverage and deflation time. The efficiency of antiwind erosion of SCB was increased linearly with the increase of the coverage. The critical coverage is about 30% for the sand surface erosion which means the best effect of antiwind erosion of the sand bed is achieved. The field experimental results were consistent with the windtunnel simulation that the SCB can improve the ability of antiwind erosion of sand beds, and SCB can also capture sand from winddrift sand to generate aeolian accumulation at a given coverage. The wind erosion rate was increased with the increasing wind speed. The bigger the wind speed was, the bigger the critical coverage when erosion was transformed to accumulation will be. However, there were some differences between the field experiment and wind tunnel simulation. Under the conditions of field experiment, the critical coverage was greater than that in the wind tunnel simulation, and for the erosion rate it was the opposite. This was caused by the different wind conditions, wind speeds and particle sizes of the SCBs as revealed by the comparison between the field experiment and the wind tunnel simulation. It was concretely represented in three aspects: Firstly, the wind speed and direction were kept stable in the wind tunnel simulation, while the wind was changeable and complex in the field; secondly, the wind speed in the wind tunnel simulation was higher than the wind velocity threshold for sand emission in the field; and thirdly in the wind tunnel simulation, the same coverage experimental sample was used to place the SCBs of the same particle size range, while the SCB of different particle sizes were collected and placed in the field experiment to reflect its true distribution in nature. In conclusion, the SCB developed in the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert has a good inhibition of wind erosion and can be used as a new measure for quicksand fixation in the desert.

Key words: sand cemented bodies, field verification, wind erosion amount, anti-erosion efficiency, sand-fixing benefits